Spanish colonization of the AmericasAmerican Indian WarsArauco WarChichimeca Warand Conquest of the Desert Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and His Troops by Emanuel Leutze While epidemic disease was a leading factor of the population decline of the American indigenous peoples afterthere were other contributing factors, all of them related to European contact and colonization.
One of the most devastating diseases was smallpoxbut other deadly diseases included typhusmeaslesinfluenzabubonic plaguecholeramalariatuberculosismumpsyellow fever and pertussiswhich were chronic in Eurasia.
Usually, arrests and the threat of violence were sufficient to allow officials to achieve minimal control. In just 60 years, native populations dropped from approximately 6, to fewer than among the 18 villages they investigated.
Many island-based groups were annihilated. Academics, students, citizens, in short, almost everyone has an opinion on the subject.
The Santee Sioux refused vaccination and many died. The first international healthcare expedition in history was the Balmis expedition which had the aim of vaccinating indigenous peoples against smallpox all along the Spanish Empire in Others, however, argue that—though still devastating—the process was far more gradual, and took place over many years.
Violence, then, was central to Spanish colonization in the Caribbean, although far more Indians died from disease, malnutrition, and starvation. The actions of the Pilgrims and Puritans toward Indians, especially, are seen as constitutive and emblematic of a subsequent colonial and U.
Native American medical treatments such as sweat baths and cold water immersion practiced in some areas weakened some patients and probably increased mortality rates.
By the s, the Crows had been forced to cede much of their land and had lost access to game and other resources that had once provided economic independence. Whether the annihilated survivors were 10, 30, or 50 percent of a pre-Columbian population would be irrelevant.
Although missionaries offered Christian conversion, as historian Gray Whaley has argued, they saw colonization as a progressive development that might allow for the salvation of a few individual Indians but would otherwise result in their general dispossession and extermination.
Out of a population of 9, the death toll from all causes was probably around 15 percent. How would this be done. That continued until almost exactlywhen a combination of increased livestock grazing and a change in federal forest management policies began to suppress all fires.
By this time, however, the indigenous population of the major islands had been greatly reduced. Many Native Americans viewed their troubles in terms of religious or supernatural causes within their own belief systems.
This event, usually termed a battle, had some characteristics of a massacre. Many island-based groups were annihilated. Others would resist arguments for even limited genocide in U. The Indian Wars Any discussion of genocide must, of course, eventually consider the so-called Indian Wars, the term commonly used for U.
Well-documented accounts of incidents involving both threats and acts of deliberate infection are very rare, but may have occurred more frequently than scholars have previously acknowledged. Ingovernment officials vaccinated the Yankton Sioux at Sioux Agency. A reported forty-three Potawatomis in a group of eight hundred died as they traveled from Indiana to Kansas, while sixty Wyandots, mostly young children, in a group of seven hundred died from disease shortly after their arrival in the West.
For many western Indian nations, population losses were severe. Empires such as the Incas depended on a highly centralized administration for the distribution of resources. It was only now, two hundred years after the first European set foot in the Southeast, that Native populations experienced the catastrophic population declines usually associated with initial contact epidemics.
It is true enough that U. The depopulation of Native Americans happened because Europeans had better and more efficient supplies as well as immunities to the diseases that they brought over with them. While the Europeans were traveling to the New World, they often brought domesticated animals.
Eurasian diseases such as influenza, bubonic plague and pneumonic plagues, yellow fever, smallpox, and malaria devastated the Native Americans, who did not have immunity to them. Conflict and outright warfare with Western European newcomers and other American tribes further reduced populations and disrupted traditional societies.
Oct 27, · In relation to the depopulation of the native Americans, I would have to say that the primary reason for their depopulation was the expansion of the Western European culture and civilization. This led to the contributing factors which were outlined in the above posts.
Virgin Soil Epidemics and Native Depopulation. that the question of genocide and American Indian history centers or depends heavily on the question of the size and intentionality of disease-caused depopulation, the “no it was not genocide” position remains credible. “New Hypothesis for Cause of Epidemic among Native Americans.
Native Americans Dominique Ace-Alija SOC – Racial and Ethnic Groups Instructor Chappelle September 3, Native Americans "Except for Native Americans, everyone else is an immigrant"- Vickie Whitewolf. These are very powerful words. Beyond Germs: Native Depopulation in North America challenges the “virgin soil” hypothesis that was used for decades to explain the decimation of the indigenous people of North America.
This hypothesis argues that the massive depopulation of the New World was caused primarily by diseases brought by European colonists that infected Native populations lacking immunity to foreign pathogens.The depopulation of native americans